Surfing, the exhilarating water sport that blends athleticism, balance, and an intimate connection to the ocean, has captivated the hearts of countless individuals worldwide. From the towering walls of Pipeline to the sun-drenched beaches of Australia, surfing bridges the gap between humans and nature like no other activity. But within this seemingly unified sport lies a tapestry of diverse styles, each reflecting the unique flair and preferences of its practitioners. As you embark on a journey through the vast realm of surfing, prepare to discover the primary surfing styles that shape this vibrant and eclectic community.



Longboarding is a style of surfing that is all about smooth, flowing, and graceful movements on a longer and wider board. It is known for its laid-back and relaxed approach, making it perfect for riders who enjoy cruising, carving, and cruising along the waves. Longboarding is often associated with a more traditional and classic style of surfing, harkening back to the origins of the sport.


When it comes to longboarding, the key equipment is, of course, the longboard itself. These boards typically range from 9 to 12 feet in length and are characterized by their wider shape and rounded nose. Longboards are designed to provide stability, glide, and easy paddling, allowing riders to catch waves with ease and maintain balance while surfing.

In addition to the board, longboarders also require a leash to ensure the board is attached to their ankle and won’t get lost in the surf. Wax is also essential to prevent slipping off the board, especially when performing intricate footwork and cross-stepping maneuvers.


Longboarding involves a variety of techniques that are unique to this style of surfing. First and foremost, it’s important to master the art of paddling as longboards require more effort to catch waves due to their size. Once you’re on the wave, longboarding techniques include trimming, cross-stepping, hanging ten or hanging five, and noseriding.

Trimming refers to the act of positioning oneself on the wave to maintain speed and balance. Cross-stepping involves moving up and down the board while walking on the nose to shift your weight and perform stylish maneuvers. Hanging ten and hanging five are footwork techniques where the surfer has their toes or five toes respectively over the front edge of the board. Noseriding is the ultimate display of control and balance, where the surfer positions themselves on the front of the board and rides along the wave with their toes hanging over the edge.

Famous Longboarders

Longboarding has seen the rise of numerous talented and influential surfers throughout history. Joel Tudor, often referred to as the “king of longboarding,” is known for his remarkable style and ability to effortlessly transition between maneuvers. He has won multiple longboarding championships, solidifying his status as a legend in the longboarding community.

Other notable longboarders include Tommy Witt, who is renowned for his progressive style and innovative maneuvers, and Honolua Blomfield, who became the youngest-ever winner of the Women’s World Longboard Championship in 2017.



Shortboarding is a dynamic and high-energy style of surfing that involves riding shorter and narrower boards. It is characterized by its fast-paced maneuvers, powerful turns, and aerial tricks. Shortboarding attracts surfers who have a desire for speed, aggression, and the challenge of pushing the limits of their surfing abilities.


Shortboards, as the name suggests, are significantly shorter than longboards, typically ranging from 5 to 7 feet in length. These boards have a narrower shape, pointed nose, and sharp rails, allowing for quick acceleration and tighter turns. Shortboards are designed to be more maneuverable and responsive, allowing surfers to perform aggressive maneuvers with ease.

To ensure safety and control, shortboarders also require a leash to keep the board attached to their ankle. Wax is essential for providing traction and preventing slipping off the board during fast-paced maneuvers.


Shortboarding involves a wide range of techniques that require speed, precision, and agility. One of the fundamental techniques is the pop-up, which involves quickly transitioning from a lying-down position to a standing position on the board to catch the wave.

Once on the wave, shortboarders utilize various maneuvers such as bottom turns, cutbacks, snap turns, and re-entries to generate speed, change direction, and perform aggressive turns. Advanced shortboarding techniques include aerials, where surfers launch themselves off the wave and perform tricks in the air, as well as tube riding, where the surfer maneuvers inside the barrel of the wave.

Famous Shortboarders

Shortboarding has witnessed the rise of many legendary surfers who have pushed the boundaries of the sport. Kelly Slater, often considered the greatest competitive surfer of all time, has dominated the world of shortboarding, winning a record-breaking 11 World Surf League Championships. Slater’s innovative maneuvers and unmatched competitive drive have made him an icon in the surfing world.

Other notable shortboarders include Mick Fanning, a three-time World Champion known for his powerful and fearless approach, and Stephanie Gilmore, a seven-time World Champion who has revolutionized women’s shortboarding with her style and grace in the water.

Big Wave Surfing


Big wave surfing is the epitome of adrenaline and bravery, as surfers tackle massive and powerful waves that can reach heights of over 20 feet or more. This style of surfing requires exceptional skill, physical fitness, and a deep understanding of the ocean and its patterns. Big wave surfers thrive on the challenge of riding these enormous walls of water, showcasing the raw power and grandeur of nature.


When it comes to big wave surfing, the right equipment is crucial for safety and performance. Big wave surfboards are significantly larger and more specialized than regular boards, ranging from 9 to 12 feet in length, with thicker dimensions and increased volume. These boards are designed to provide stability and control in massive surf, allowing surfers to paddle into and ride these monstrous waves.

In addition to the board, big wave surfers rely on a variety of safety equipment, including flotation vests and rescue sleds, which provide added buoyancy and assistance in case of emergencies. They also use specialized leashes and fins designed to withstand the intense forces encountered in big wave conditions.


Big wave surfing demands a unique set of techniques to navigate and conquer these towering walls of water. Paddling out in massive surf is a challenge in itself, requiring immense physical strength and endurance. Paddle techniques involve timing, efficiency, and the ability to navigate through breaking waves.

Once a big wave is caught, surfers must execute powerful bottom turns and carve aggressively to maintain speed and positioning on the wave face. Tube riding becomes a thrilling possibility when surfing big waves, as riders aim to position themselves deep within the barrel and emerge unscathed. Successful big wave surfing also requires advanced skills in handling wipeouts, as surfers need to be able to handle being caught inside massive walls of moving water.

Famous Big Wave Surfers

Big wave surfing has given rise to some of the most fearless and legendary surfers in history. Laird Hamilton, often regarded as the pioneer of tow-in surfing, is renowned for his achievements in riding massive waves, including the infamous Jaws in Hawaii. Hamilton’s extraordinary athleticism, waterman skills, and innovation have made him an icon in the big wave surfing community.

Other notable big wave surfers include Garrett McNamara, who achieved global recognition for riding the largest wave ever surfed at Nazaré, Portugal, and Maya Gabeira, a Brazilian pro surfer known for riding massive waves and pushing the boundaries of women’s big wave surfing.

Freestyle Surfing


Freestyle surfing is all about creativity, individual expression, and pushing the boundaries of what is possible on a surfboard. This style of surfing embraces a variety of maneuvers, tricks, and acrobatic movements that showcase a surfer’s personal style and flair. Freestyle surfing is a fusion of artistry and athleticism, where surfers combine technical skill with artistic interpretation to create breathtaking performances on the waves.


When it comes to freestyle surfing, surfers have the freedom to choose from a wide range of surfboards depending on their personal preferences and the specific style of freestyle they wish to pursue. Shortboards, fish boards, and even hybrid boards can all be used for freestyle surfing, depending on the desired level of maneuverability and responsiveness.

It’s essential to have the right fin setup for freestyle surfing, as different fin configurations can enhance performance in various maneuvers. Fins with increased flexibility and responsiveness are favored, allowing surfers to execute quick turns and transitions with ease.


Freestyle surfing incorporates a wide array of techniques, including aerial maneuvers, spins, 360s, and innovative combinations of tricks. Aerial maneuvers involve launching the board off the wave and performing tricks in mid-air, such as grabs, flips, and rotations.

Successful execution of spins and 360s requires precise footwork and timing to generate speed and momentum while rotating on the wave. Freestyle surfers often experiment with unique combinations of maneuvers, linking tricks together seamlessly to create their own signature style and flow.

Famous Freestyle Surfers

Freestyle surfing has given rise to numerous influential and boundary-pushing surfers who have left an indelible mark on the sport. Dane Reynolds, known for his progressive and experimental approach, has redefined what is possible on a surfboard with his innovative tricks and maneuvers.

Albee Layer is another standout freestyle surfer, renowned for his fearless approach and groundbreaking aerial maneuvers. His ability to land complex and difficult tricks has earned him a reputation as one of the most exciting and innovative surfers in the freestyle scene.

Tow-in Surfing


Tow-in surfing takes wave riding to the extreme, allowing surfers to catch and ride waves that would otherwise be impossible to paddle into. This style of surfing involves the use of personal watercraft, such as jet skis, to tow surfers into massive waves, opening up new possibilities and pushing the limits of what is considered surfable.


Tow-in surfers require specialized equipment designed to handle the immense power and size of the waves they ride. Tow boards, or gun boards, are longer and narrower than regular surfboards, ranging from 7 to 10 feet. These boards are specifically designed to provide stability and control at high speeds and in challenging conditions.

Personal watercraft, typically jet skis, are an essential part of tow-in surfing as they tow surfers into waves at high speeds. These watercraft allow surfers to catch waves with precision and avoid being caught in the massive impact zones of the waves they ride.


Tow-in surfing demands exceptional skill, coordination, and timing. The surfers being towed by the personal watercraft need to position themselves correctly and drop into the wave at the perfect moment. The ability to navigate through massive walls of water and maintain control at high speeds is crucial for successful tow-in surfing.

Once on the wave, surfers must be able to make split-second decisions and execute powerful turns, aerials, and carving maneuvers. The fast-paced nature of tow-in surfing requires surfers to constantly adapt, react, and push the boundaries of what is possible in the pursuit of the ultimate ride.

Famous Tow-in Surfers

Tow-in surfing has attracted the attention of some of the most daring and accomplished surfers in the world. Laird Hamilton, already mentioned as a big wave surfing legend, played a pivotal role in popularizing tow-in surfing and pushing the boundaries of what was considered rideable. Hamilton’s fearlessness and pioneering spirit have firmly established him as a household name in the world of tow-in surfing.

Dave Kalama, a close collaborator of Hamilton, is another influential figure in the tow-in surfing community. Kalama’s contributions to the sport and innovation in equipment design have made him highly regarded among fellow surfers.

Stand-Up Paddleboarding (SUP)


Stand-Up Paddleboarding (SUP) has gained immense popularity in recent years, blending elements of surfing and paddling to create a versatile and accessible water activity. SUP involves standing on a large and stable board and using a paddle to propel oneself through the water. This style of surfing allows for a unique perspective and opens up opportunities to explore various bodies of water, from calm lakes and rivers to challenging ocean waves.


The primary equipment required for SUP includes a paddleboard and a paddle. SUP boards are typically wider, longer, and more buoyant than traditional surfboards, providing stability and balance for standing and paddling. There are different types of SUP boards, including all-around boards, touring boards, and wave-specific boards, each tailored to specific conditions and preferences.

Paddles used in SUP are longer than traditional surfing paddles, often featuring an adjustable shaft to accommodate different paddler heights and water conditions. These paddles are designed for efficient forward propulsion while standing upright on the board.

Other essential equipment for SUP includes a leash to ensure the board remains attached to the paddler and a personal flotation device (PFD) for added safety, especially when venturing into deep water or areas with strong currents.


The primary technique in SUP is the act of balancing and standing on the board while using the paddle to propel oneself through the water. It’s important to maintain a stable stance on the board, with feet positioned parallel to the stringer for optimal balance and control.

The paddling technique involves reaching forward with the paddle, inserting it into the water, and pulling backward to generate propulsion. Proper paddle technique is key to efficient and effective paddling, allowing for smooth and sustained forward movement.

SUP also offers the opportunity to engage in various maneuvers such as pivot turns, sweep strokes, and bracing techniques. Pivot turns involve stepping back on the board while drawing the paddle in an arc to turn the board. Sweep strokes are wide, sweeping movements with the paddle that allow for more precise turning. Bracing techniques are vital for maintaining balance and stability in challenging conditions, such as when encountering waves or strong currents.

Famous SUP Surfers

Stand-Up Paddleboarding has attracted a diverse range of athletes and water enthusiasts who have elevated the sport with their skill and innovation. Kai Lenny, often referred to as the “waterman of our generation,” is widely recognized for his exceptional talent in numerous water sports, including SUP. Lenny’s versatility, wave-riding ability, and pioneering spirit have placed him at the forefront of the SUP community.

Another notable figure in the SUP world is Izzi Gomez, a young and accomplished professional SUP surfer. Gomez has dominated the women’s SUP surfing scene, winning multiple world championships and setting new standards for performance in women’s SUP.



Bodyboarding, also known as boogie boarding, is a style of surfing where the rider lies on a rectangular foam board, using their fins and body positioning to catch waves and perform maneuvers. Bodyboarding is a highly accessible and exhilarating water sport that can be enjoyed by people of all ages and skill levels. It offers a unique perspective, allowing riders to experience the rush of riding waves closer to the water’s surface.


The primary equipment for bodyboarding is the bodyboard itself, which is typically constructed from a foam core with a slick bottom and a soft deck. Bodyboards come in various sizes, with the length ranging from 32 to 46 inches, depending on the rider’s height and weight.

To ensure safety and control, bodyboarders also require a leash to keep the board attached to their wrist. Fins are another essential piece of equipment, providing propulsion and maneuverability in the water. Fins come in a variety of styles, with different stiffness and blade designs to accommodate individual preferences and surf conditions.


Bodyboarding techniques revolve around body control, wave selection, and maneuver execution. Paddling is a fundamental skill, requiring efficient and powerful arm strokes to catch waves and generate speed. Bodyboarders use their fins to kick, providing additional propulsion to catch waves and maintain momentum.

Once on the wave, bodyboarders can perform a variety of maneuvers, including cutbacks, barrels, spins, and aerials. Cutbacks involve carving turns on the face of the wave to change direction and maintain speed. Riding inside the barrel of a wave is a popular maneuver among bodyboarders, showcasing their ability to navigate the tube and emerge unscathed. Spins and aerials are tricks that involve spinning and rotating in the air, showcasing technical skill and creativity.

Famous Bodyboarders

Bodyboarding has produced many talented and influential athletes who have played a significant role in shaping the sport. Mike Stewart, often referred to as the “godfather” of bodyboarding, is recognized for his immense contributions to the development of the sport. As a multiple-time world champion, Stewart’s skill, technical prowess, and wave-riding abilities have made him a legend in the bodyboarding community.

Another prominent figure in bodyboarding is Ben Player, an Australian professional bodyboarder known for his innovative maneuvers and champion title wins. Player’s creativity and commitment to pushing the sport’s boundaries have solidified his place among the elite bodyboarders of our time.

Tandem Surfing


Tandem surfing is a unique and visually stunning form of surfing, where two people ride the same surfboard and perform synchronized maneuvers. This style of surfing requires seamless coordination, trust, and teamwork between the two riders, resulting in a captivating display of balance, strength, and artistry on the waves.


Tandem surfing relies on specialized tandem boards, which are longer, wider, and more buoyant than standard surfboards to accommodate the weight and balance requirements of two riders. These boards typically range from 9 to 12 feet in length and have a wider shape with increased volume for stability and control.

Safety equipment such as leashes and personal flotation devices (PFDs) are essential for tandem surfers, ensuring the board remains attached to the riders and providing an additional layer of security in the water.


Tandem surfing demands precise coordination, communication, and synchronization between the two riders. It requires exceptional teamwork, as both riders must shift their weight and adjust their positioning simultaneously to maintain balance and harmony on the board.

Techniques in tandem surfing include lifts, where one rider lifts the other into the air, spins, acrobatic maneuvers, and graceful footwork. Lifts involve one rider using their strength to elevate their partner above the wave or perform aerial tricks. The skill and flexibility of the riders play a crucial role in executing impressive spins and acrobatic maneuvers, showcasing their ability to push the boundaries of what is possible in tandem surfing.

Famous Tandem Surfers

Tandem surfing has seen the emergence of several talented and celebrated duos who have brought attention and recognition to this unique style of surfing. Chuck Inman and Candy Calhoun, known as the “King and Queen of Tandem,” were pioneers of tandem surfing and popularized the sport in the 1960s. Their innovative lifts, twists, and flips set the standard for future generations of tandem surfers.

Mickey Munoz and Squirrel, another influential tandem duo, are renowned for their captivating performances and technical maneuvers. Their creativity and ability to seamlessly blend surfing and acrobatics have kept them at the forefront of the tandem surfing community.

River Surfing


River surfing is a thrilling and challenging style of surfing that involves riding standing waves in rivers, offering a unique and constantly changing wave environment. Unlike traditional ocean surfing, where waves move, river surfing relies on stationary or standing waves created by the flow of water against an obstacle, such as boulders or a man-made structure. River surfing requires adaptability and the ability to read river currents and features to find the best waves.


River surfing utilizes specialized river surfboards designed to handle the dynamic and unpredictable nature of river waves. These boards are typically shorter, more compact, and more buoyant than ocean surfboards, allowing for quick turns and responsiveness in river conditions. River surfboards often have additional fins or channels to provide stability and control in fast-moving water.

In addition to the board, river surfers require a leash and personal flotation device (PFD) for safety. The PFD not only serves as a flotation device but also provides added protection in case of collisions with river obstacles.


River surfing requires adjusting to the unique characteristics of river waves, which differ significantly from ocean waves. River surfers need to understand the river’s flow and features, as well as how different currents impact wave formations.

Techniques in river surfing include positioning on the wave, pumping to generate speed, and performing dynamic turns and aerial maneuvers. Positioning is critical, as river surfers must find the sweet spot on the wave to maximize speed and control. Pumping involves using body weight and board movements to generate speed on the wave, compensating for the lack of natural wave energy in rivers. River surfers also perform aggressive bottom turns and cutbacks to maintain speed and perform stylish maneuvers.

Famous River Surfers

River surfing may be a less mainstream style of surfing, but it has its own community of dedicated and influential surfers. Raphaël Boulanger, known as “Rapha” in the river surfing world, is considered one of the pioneers of river surfing. He played a crucial role in popularizing the sport and establishing river surfing as a legitimate discipline within the surfing community.

Another notable figure in river surfing is Brad Hilton, who has mastered the art of riding various river waves around the world. Hilton’s technical skills, deep understanding of river dynamics, and adventurous spirit have earned him a reputation as one of the top river surfers in the world.



Skimboarding is a dynamic and fast-paced style of surfing that involves gliding across shallow water and performing tricks and maneuvers on a thin wooden board. It originated as a beachside activity, allowing riders to catch waves close to shore and then ride back out to the ocean. Skimboarding offers a unique blend of surfing, skateboarding, and wakeboarding, attracting riders who enjoy high-speed sliding and technical tricks.


Skimboards are the primary equipment for skimboarding, and they come in different shapes, sizes, and materials to accommodate various riding styles and water conditions. Skimboards typically have a thin and flat design, with a wide and round nose for stability and flotation. They are usually made of wood or fiberglass, with a gripped surface for traction.

For safety, skimboarders wear traction pads, which provide additional grip and prevent slipping off the board. Other essential equipment includes a leash to keep the board attached to the rider and to prevent it from getting lost in the shorebreak.


Skimboarding involves a range of techniques that require balance, agility, and precise timing. It begins with the drop, where the rider runs from the beach and drops the board onto the thin wash of a retreating wave, gliding along the thin layer of receding water.

Once on the wave, skimboarders can perform a variety of tricks and maneuvers, including wraps, shuv-its, spins, and slides. Wraps involve turning the board’s side into the wave to perform a smooth 180-degree turn. Shuv-its are tricks where the rider rotates the board horizontally or vertically while keeping their feet on the board. Spins are fast, rotational maneuvers where the rider twists their body and board to perform a 360-degree spin. Slides are tricks where the rider slides the board across the water’s surface, often incorporating jumps or grabs for added style.

Famous Skimboarders

Skimboarding may have a smaller and more niche following than other surfing styles, but it has its share of talented and influential athletes. Blair Conklin, a professional skimboarder, is revered for his technical skill and his ability to perform gravity-defying maneuvers. Conklin has won multiple skimboarding championships and has showcased his skills in various skimboarding videos and competitions.

Another notable figure in the skimboarding community is Brad Domke, known for his unconventional approach that combines skimboarding and big wave surfing. Domke gained widespread recognition when he rode massive waves at Puerto Escondido, Mexico, on his skimboard, showcasing the versatility and athleticism of the sport.

In conclusion, there is a wide variety of surfing styles, each with its own unique characteristics, equipment requirements, techniques, and influential figures. From the elegance and grace of longboarding to the high-energy maneuvers of shortboarding, the adrenaline rush of big wave surfing, and the creativity of freestyle surfing, there is a style of surfing to suit every individual’s preferences and skills. Whether you’re drawn to the power and challenge of riding massive waves or the innovative tricks and artistic expression of freestyle surfing, the world of surfing offers endless opportunities for fun, progression, and connection with the ocean.